Allogeneic marrow transplant

DEFINITION:

Allogeneic transplant is carried out from the cells of a healthy donor. It is used most frequently when the disease to be treated essentially affects the bone marrow.

DESCRIPTION:

Allogeneic marrow transplant is usually carried out with a compatible brother/sister. If this option is not available, cells from another donor can be used.
The donor may also be someone who is unrelated. On this basis, someone must found from amongst the voluntary donors registered in different countries.
On some occasions, the transplants are carried out using cells obtained from blood from the umbilical cord. If no donor is found on international registers or at umbilical cord banks, a partially compatible family member may be used (haploidentical transplant)

BEFORE THE TRANSPLANT:

Before carrying out a hematopoietic progenitor cell transplant, it is necessary to administer a treatment called conditioning. Generally speaking, it consists of high doses of chemotherapy which may or may not be associated with radiotherapy and which is necessary to eradicate the disease it is wished to treat and also to suppress the patient's immune system so it doesn't reject the donor cells.

AFTER THE TRANSPLANT:

Those patients who have been subjected to an allogeneic hematopoietic transplant must remain hospitalised under special conditions until the infused progenitor cells have regenerated and produce enough cells to replace those that have been destroyed by the treatment. This period depends on the type of transplant and conditioning treatment, but it usually takes between 2 and 4 weeks.

Other possible complications derive from the rejection that the immune systems (defensive cells) of the patient and of the donor have with each other and which will be more intense the greater the incompatibility between both. This circumstance requires immunosuppressive treatment to be followed for at least 6 months.